The findings of this research paper highlight the impact of infrastructure projects in rural Nepal. Within the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley clear transitions in settlement patterns and rural livelihoods (and thus the occupation of landslide prone areas) have been seen over time. For the majority of households, their decision to occupy these areas is driven by the economic and social benefits associated with the road. Landslide risk therefore emerges not just from societal marginalization but also from situations of relative prosperity. The findings suggest that occupants of landslide prone areas have a good understanding of landslide hazard and its associated risk. However, these risks are contextualized in relation to other social concerns in Nepal.