This document is prepared by Western Sydney University's Humanitarian and Development Research Initiative (HADRI) and Nepal's National Disaster Risk Reduction Centre (NDRC) and represents a strong collaboration between long-term organizational partners. The document focuses on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) issues in Nepal, particularly examining the experiences of women and identifying gaps in knowledge and areas requiring further attention.
Based on a comprehensive literature and policy review, along with field assessments from NDRC, the report presents the broader context of Nepal, including social, political, cultural, and environmental factors influencing WASH practices. It acknowledges progress in various sectors despite challenges such as the 2015 earthquake. A literature review summarizes existing knowledge in WASH-related areas, considering variables like gender, caste, ethnicity, economic status, and location. The document assesses water access, specifically focusing on gender and women's participation in program and policy design. Using a case-study approach, it illustrates how WASH-related issues manifest at the local level in four districts of Nepal. Additionally, a policy review outlines major stages in WASH policy design and implementation since the 1970s.
In conclusion, the report identifies gaps in knowledge and critical areas that require attention for future action, providing valuable insights into WASH challenges and opportunities in Nepal, with an emphasis on addressing gender-specific needs.